Contract type: Internship
Starting date: March 2021
Duration: 6 months
Working Place: Palaiseau
Education: Master 2 ; Engineer
Salary: Salary grid
Become an actor of the Energy Transition by joining a team driven by innovation and impact to address today’s most decisive challenges.
IPVF – Institut Photovoltaïque d’Île-de-France, is a global Research, Innovation and Education center, which mission is to accelerate energy transition through science & technology.
Gathering industrial PV leaders (EDF, Total, Air Liquide, Horiba and Riber) and world-renowned academic research teams (CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique), multi-disciplinary and international IPVF teams conduct research for clean energy technologies.
Supported by the French State, IPVF is labelled Institute for Energy Transition (ITE).
IPVF at a glance:
The power conversion efficiency of Silicon solar cells comes closer and closer to its theoretical limit of 29.4 %. To further improve the efficiency, among different technological breakthroughs, state-of-the-art tandem technology which combine perovskite top cell and the Silicon bottom cell has been recently proposed and has raised much attention in the PV communities. The impressive world record efficiencies of single junction perovskite solar cells and of perovskite /silicon tandem solar cells nowadays reach 25.2 and 29.1 %, respectively. They are, however, developed on the small active area (around 1 cm²) and thus a demand of upscaling the cell size to be compatible to industrial production line is mandatory. A common approach is to employ spin-coating as a simple and low-cost wet-based method to develop the perovskite absorber layers. However, non-scalable coating is achieved at the large cell level and furthermore, non-conformal coating on the µm-size pyramidal texturized Silicon cells. To overcome these drawbacks a hybrid deposition process, that couples both vacuum and chemical based techniques, can be developed. In this case a first inorganic layer is grown by evaporation allowing the deposition of a conformal film on a rough surface. This last is then converted by a chemical way. Vacuum-based evaporation can operate at a high level of automatization and promise to enable upscaling and deposition on non-planar substrates. The evaporated inorganic intermediate layers are then transferred to slot-die coating to convert them into the final perovskite layers. Slot-die coating is, moreover, one of the high-throughput and scalable sheet-to-sheet methods which motivate the translation of this technology to industrially relevant deposition techniques. The hybrid two-step evaporation/slot-die coating deposition method combines benefits from both, giving high compositional flexibility without using reactive and toxic solvents.
The candidate will be involved in the elaboration of mixed-halide halogenated perovskite layers using two-step evaporation/slot-die coating method. He/she will evaluate the influence of the deposition and post-deposition parameters of Lead (II) iodide (PbI2) and Cesium-based halides in the co-evaporation step on the ultimate perovskite films. Different techniques such as (GI)XRD, SEM, AFM, Photoluminescence (both steady-state and time-resolved), Raman and spectrophotometry will be employed to analyze the compositions, morphologies and optoelectronic properties of perovskite films. The candidate will finally measure the performances (efficiency, stability…) of single junction solar devices integrated the optimized perovskite absorber by performing J-V electrical characterization and External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) measurement.
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