Contract type: Internship
Starting date: March 2021
Duration: 6 months
Working Place: Institut Lavoisier (ILV), Versailles
Education: Master 2 ; Engineer
Salary: Salary grid
Become an actor of the Energy Transition by joining a team driven by innovation and impact to address today’s most decisive challenges.
IPVF – Institut Photovoltaïque d’Île-de-France, is a global Research, Innovation and Education center, which mission is to accelerate energy transition through science & technology.
Gathering industrial PV leaders (EDF, Total, Air Liquide, Horiba and Riber) and world-renowned academic research teams (CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique), multi-disciplinary and international IPVF teams conduct research for clean energy technologies.
Supported by the French State, IPVF is labelled Institute for Energy Transition (ITE).
IPVF at a glance:
Perovskite-based solar cells have undergone rapid development in the power conversion efficiency (PCE), increasing from 2.2% to 25.2% between 2006 and 2019 . In order to compete with silicon technology, these cells must provide a combination of high efficiency, low manufacturing costs, and excellent stability. Therefore, researchers have focused on optimizing the chemical structure of Perovskite leading to the triple cation structure known as FAMACs. In addition, electron transport layer (ETL) and hole transport layer (HTL), as well as the interfaces, have proved to play a critical role in improving not only the efficiency, but also the intrinsic and extrinsic stability of the devices . During past years, several characterizations have been performed on Perovskite layers in order to access crystallographic, optical, electrical and chemical information. This is the framework of this internship which aims to get further insight into the critical role of perovskite / (ETL) interface on device behavior by probing the chemical composition from the surface to the interfaces. Specific in-depth profiling methodology based on a coupling of two chemical characterization techniques, X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), will be applied to perovskite / ETL stacks. It is important to highlight that the sequences of GD-OES and XPS was successfully applied on photovoltaic absorbers such as CIGS or III-V materials . Other structural and optical characterizations are also considered in order to better understand the mechanisms of aging and instability.
P. Schulz et al, Chem. Rev. (2019), 119, 5, 3349-3417
D. Mercier et al, Applied Surface Science, 347 (2015) 799–807
S. Béchu et al, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, (2019), 37, 062902
IPVF Research Program involving this internship position: https://ipvf.fr/jean-paul-kleider-philip-schulz-and-daniel-ory-introducing-programme-4-characterization-modeling-reliability/
This internship is part of a collaborative project lead by IPVF (Photovoltaic Institute of Ile-de-France) and will mainly take place at the Lavoisier Institute in Versailles (Versailles). The idea is to take advantage of the two techniques : XPS allows to precisely probe the composition of the extreme surface and thus to have access to the atomic composition as well as their chemical environments. The GD-OES, semi-quantitative technique, assures a fast depth profiling to quickly reach specific areas of interest in-depth.
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